- Inflammation, pain around the big toe.
- Redness, discomfort when wearing shoes.
- Calluses and / or corns on the outside of the big toe, between the big toe and the second toe or under the ball of the foot.
- Over-lapping toes.
- Poor foot function (biomechanics).
- Family history of bunions.
- Poor or tight footwear.
- Arthritic conditions.
- Trauma or previous surgery around the big toe.
Treatment varies depending on the severity of pain and deformity. Treatment may include:
- Padding to protect the bony prominence from shoe irritation.
- Wearing correctly fitting footwear.
- Callus and corn management through conservative podiatric treatment.
- Medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs or cortisone injections to ease pain and inflammation.
- Correction of poor foot biomechanics through orthotics (custom-made shoe inserts). These re-align to foot and assist in stabilising the joint. This treatment can be very effective in halting or slowing bunion development.